What Is “Theater of the Mind” in Dungeons and Dragons?

What is “theater of the mind” when it comes to how D&D played? Here’s an explanation along with several pros and cons.

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Dungeons & Dragons is a game that relies primarily on two things: dice and imagination. The imagination determines what the player wants to do and the dice determine how successful the player is at whatever they’re setting out to do.

How reliant on imagination a game of D&D ends up is down to how its played. A dungeon master might elect to use a grid-based battle mat with miniatures to represent the players, the enemies, and the scenery.

When playing online, these are replaced with a tool like Roll20 or Fantasy Grounds, which serve as digital maps and minis.

Some dungeon masters will elect to throw out those maps and instead let imagination completely carry the game. This is called playing in the “theater of the mind.” This completely changes the way D&D is played—for some it’s for the better and for some it’s worse. It really comes down to preference.

So how exactly is D&D played in the theater of the mind played? Let’s take a look.

Theater of the Mind, Explained

Basically, playing D&D with the theater of the mind means that you’re playing without any visual representations of what is occurring in the game. Instead, everything is in the imagination of the players and the dungeon master.

A lot of the time role-playing encounters play out this way without you actually thinking about it. Most DMs describe the character you’re speaking with and tell you what they said. You then go back and forth having a conversation with your imagination.

In theater of the mind, the whole game plays out like that. So when a pack of goblins ambushes the party from behind a tree, the DM needs to describe the goblins, their position, and everything else about the combat scenario.

This also pops up during exploration. Instead of moving minis around a map, the players say they’re moving and the DM explains what they see. For example, the players may approach a fork in the path. The DM will need to explain that path they’re traveling down splits and describe what the players see down each one.

A good DM can deal with these situations quickly by having a strong visual in their mind of what the dungeon looks like. They need to be as descriptive as possible to paint a mental picture for the players as they navigate.

So, to put it simply, theater of the mind is D&D played with only dice and imagination. It can be a fun way to play the game, but it has some issues as well, which we’ll dig into right now.

Theater of the Mind: Pros and Cons


  • Lets the players use their imagination to create interesting scenes
  • Forces DMs to get creative
  • Allows for flexibility in combat with less worrying about space
  • Far more affordable than minis and maps
  • Can be more immersive if the players are able to focus
  • Painting minis is time-consuming and requires artistic ability
  • Manually drawing maps is time-consuming and printing them is expensive


  • Confusing to keep track of where everyone is
  • Hard to determine the range of attacks and spells
  • Difficult to keep some players focused on the game
  • Exploring is difficult without a visual aid
  • Minis and maps are fun to play with and collect
  • Challenging to enforce rules without visuals to back up claims

Is Theater of the Mind Right for You?

In the end, it really comes down to your personal preference of the group as a whole. Some people don’t have great imaginations and need a more visual representation of what they’re working with.

For me, I prefer to use maps and minis for exploration and combat and theater of the mind for role-playing and situations where positioning isn’t as important (for example, exploring a wide-open area or a forest).

If you’re on a budget or a beginner who isn’t sure if D&D is the game for them, theater of the mind can be a great way to get started with minimal investment (you can get started for almost no money).

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