Coup is one of the best bluffing and social deduction games to add to your collection. It's easy to learn, plays in under 15 minutes, and generates a lot of fun for how small and lightweight it is.
But if you go by the official rules, the game plays best at 5 players. It is, after all, a social deduction game packed with bluffing, and you need a good number of players to make that work; too few and people can just guess their way to victory.
After a lot of experimentation and iteration and reading up on how others play Coup, I've found that this game is even better when played with only 2 players—as long as you ditch the official 2-player variant in the rulebook.
A few simple tweaks can turn Coup into one of the most tense and exciting 2-player card games on the market.
Note: This post assumes you know how to play Coup already. If you don't, I recommend watching the How to Play Coup video by Watch It Played.
Why the Official 2-Player Variant of Coup Sucks
The official 2-player variant of Coup goes like this:
- The starting player starts with 1 coin while the other player starts with 2 coins.
- Divide the character cards into 3 decks, with 1 of each character type per deck. Each player takes a deck, picks 1 character, and discards the remaining cards. Then, using the third deck, deal a second character to each player, then use the remaining 3 characters as the court deck.
I can see what they were going for with these changes: the first tweak attempts to offset first-player advantage, and the second tweak attempts to limit the number of variables so players can glean a little more information, especially if they look through the court deck using the Ambassador.
But the official variant doesn't address the elephant in the room when it comes to Coup with only two players: the Assassin character is so overpowered that the game essentially always comes down to one decision.
If the opponent calls the Assassin on you, you can either accept it at face value, counter with a Contessa, or call their bluff.
That last option is ultra risky, because if they do have an Assassin, the game is over: you lose a character for failing the challenge, and you lose a character for being assassinated.
You don't have enough information in this variant to know whether it's a bluff or not, so it's smarter to eat the assassination or counter with a Contessa.
The coup action is also overpowered: the first to coup twice wins.
What began as a game of bluffing and deduction is reduced to a race for coins and blind bluffs and challenges. Coup doesn't have much "gameplay" to begin with, and the official 2-player variant strips it of whatever it does have.
The Ultimate 2-Player Coup Variant
We can address the flaws in two-player Coup with these tweaks:
1. Use the "call the coup" rule that's been popularized on BoardGameGeek and Reddit: when using the coup action, you must name a specific character to kill.
If they don't have that character, they prove it by showing both character cards. Then, they draw two cards from the court deck, pick the two they want to keep, and return the other two to the top of the court deck.
(Optional) Use the "call the coup" rule for assassinations as well!
2. Play with five lives each. When a character dies, flip it face-up and set it aside, then draw from the court deck to replace it. When your fourth and fifth characters die, DON'T replace them. As soon as someone's fifth character dies, they lose.
3. Play with a full 15-card court deck.
Why This Coup Variant Is Better
The "call the coup" rule eliminates the race for coins. Even if you're behind, you can catch up if they fail to call their coups (and assassinations) correctly.
This rule also incentivizes dishonest play, as you don't want the opponent to know which characters you have. It forces more mindgames and reduces the importance of which cards you draw, which also reduces the luck element.
This rule also makes the Ambassador worth having in hand, either to ensure the ability to change up your characters when you think the opponent has figured you out, or as misdirection if you don't think the opponent is likely to coup or assassinate an Ambassador.
The "five lives" rule eliminates the "make one mistake and you lose" flaw, which essentially weakens the strength of the Assassin. It gives you more time to gather information about what the opponent has, and opens up more strategies as the game evolves.
Playing with a full court deck means that the game starts off with a good amount of luck involved, but as characters die and player options become limited, deduction starts playing a greater and more influential role towards the end.
With these tweaks in place, I honestly now like Coup more as a 2-player game than as a group game.
The original game is still fine as a way to kill time and have fun without too much thinking, but the ultimate 2-player variant turns Coup into an actually interesting game of strategy and deductive skill.